MANGALYAN – India’s Maiden Attempt

MOM-5India has launched its MANGALYAN ( Mars Craft ) . India became the very first country in the world , who successfully sent its satellite into the Mars orbit at its maiden attempt so far. This is incredibly great that they got this success with limited sources and with very low funds. So here are some of the information we are sharing about the planet MARS and about the Indian Mars Program.

The magnificent space around us that consists of stars, solar system, galaxies etc is called Universe. Our Solar system is contained in a galaxy called Milky Way. Our solar system contains nine planets , which are revolving around Sun at its fixed path called orbit. The forces between different planets and Sun is called gravitational force which helps them to revolve in a fixed orbit.

In our Solar System The Earth is positioned as the third planet from the Sun, which is naturally suitable for existence of life due its feasible temperature and gravity . Scientist are eager to know that if there is life possible on any planet in the solar system other than Earth. So to find the answers, Scientist are sending their signals in outer space to know more about other planets. So in this series , Mars is one of the planet , where scientist are looking for the existence of life or natural resources.

Mars is the fourth planet in our solar system. Named after the Roman god of war , and often described as the “ Red Planet due to its reddish appearance. Mars is a terrestrial planet with a thin atmosphere composed primarily of Carbon dioxide.

Mars and Earth have approximately same landmass :
Even though Mars has only 15% of the Earth‘s volume and just 10% of the Earth’s mass, around two thirds of the Earth’s surface is covered in water. Martian surface gravity is only 37% of the Earth’s gravity, means one could leap three times higher on Mars.


Distance between Mars and Earth.
The minimum distance from the Earth to Mars is about 54.6 million kilometers. The farthest apart they can be is about 401 million km. The average distance is about 225 million km.

India has become the first nation to send a satellite into orbit around Mars on its first attempt, and the first Asian nation to do so..

India now joins an elite club of nations who have successfully carried out interplanetary space missions, and has scored a significant point in its rivalry with China.

Mission control in the southern Indian city of Bangalore received confirmation of the success at 7.41am Wednesday, local time. The satellite Mangalyaan had entered the orbit of the red planet 12 minutes earlier, but the message needed to traverse the 400m miles (650m km) to Earth.

Mangalyaan, which means “Mars craft” in Hindi, took off from the island of Shriharikota, off India’s eastern coast, 10 months ago. The 3,000lb (1,350kg) device first headed for an elliptical orbit around Earth, after which a series of maneuvers and short burns of its rocket engines sent it on towards Mars.

ISRO scientists successfully tested the main engine on Monday and performed a course correction that put the low-cost project on track to enter the red planet’s orbit. Reducing the craft’s speed from 13.7 miles per second was the key challenge.
“It has covered 98% of the distance but the last 2% is the tricky bit,” Bagla said before the successful entry. “If it is too fast it will fly by Mars and be lost in space. If it is too slow it will crash into the planet.”

Some have questioned the $70m (£43m) price tag for a country still dealing with widespread hunger and poverty. But India defended the Mars mission by noting its importance in providing hi-tech jobs for scientists and engineers and practical applications in solving problems on Earth.

Success makes India the fourth space power after the US, Europe and Russia to orbit or land on the red planet. The cost of the Indian effort is a tenth of that of the Nasa mission that put a satellite into the orbit of Mars on Monday Sept 22, 2014.

Home to Mountains :
Mars is the home to the tallest mountain in the solar system. Olympus Mons, a shield volcano is 21 km high and 600 km in diameter. (Whereas Earth’s tallest mountain is Mount Everest, which is 8848m i.e. around 8.8 km ). Despite having formed over billions of years, evidence from volcanic lava flows is so recent many scientists believe it could still be active.

What Next
Mangalyaan will observe the environment of Mars and look for various elements like methane (marsh gas), which is a possible indicator of life. It will also look for Deuterium-Hydroden ratio and other neutral constants.

(9 more ‘MOM’ can be sent by INDIA in budget of one MAVEN)
The ‘MOM’s actual expenditure incurred upto $40.66 million as till October 31, 2013 against its total budget of $75 million. The balance amount is planned to be spent during the remaining period of current financial year and next financial year.


Mass : 641,693,000,000,000 billion kg
Diameter : Equitorial Diameter : 6,805 km
Number of Moons : 2
Name of Moon : Phobos & Deimos
Surface temperature of Mars : -87 to 5 degree C


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